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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 130-134

Exogenous stem cells pioneer a biobridge to the advantage of host brain cells following stroke: New insights for clinical applications

1 Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33612, USA
2 Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Psychology, Kibi International University, 8 Iga-machi, Takahashi-City, Okayama 716-8508, Japan

Correspondence Address:
Naoki Tajiri
Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Psychology, Kibi International University 8 Iga-machi, Takahashi-city, Okayama 716-8508
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_17_17

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Stroke continues to maintain its status as one of the top causes of mortality within the United States. Currently, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug in place for stroke patients, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), has a rigid therapeutic window, closing at approximately 4.5 h after stroke onset. Due to this short time frame and other restrictions, such as any condition that increases a patient's risk for hemorrhaging, it has been predicted that <5% of ischemic stroke patients benefit from tPA. Given that rehabilitation therapy remains the only other option for stroke victims, there is a clear unmet clinical need for treatment available for the remaining 95%. While still considered an experimental treatment, the utilization of stem cell therapies for stroke holds consistent promise. Copious preclinical studies report the capacity for transplanted stem cells to rescue the brain parenchyma surrounding the stroke-induced infarct core. At present, the exact mechanisms in which stem cells contribute a robust therapeutic benefit remains unclear. Following stem cell administration, researchers have observed cell replacement, an increase in growth factors, and a reduction in inflammation. With a deeper understanding of the precise mechanism of stem cells, these therapies can be optimized in the clinic to afford the greatest therapeutic benefit. Recent studies have depicted a unique method of endogenous stem cell activation as a result of stem cell therapy. In both traumatic brain injury and stroke models, transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) facilitated a pathway between the neurogenic niches of the brain and the damaged area through extracellular matrix remodeling. The biobridge pioneered by the MSCs was utilized by the endogenous stem cells, and these cells were able to travel to the damaged areas distal to the neurogenic niches, a feat unachievable without prior remodeling. These studies broaden our understanding of stem cell interactions within the injured brain and help to guide both researchers and clinicians in developing an effective stem cell treatment for stroke. This paper is a review article. Referred literature in this paper has been listed in the references section. The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are available online by searching various databases, including PubMed. Some original points in this article come from the laboratory practice in our research center and the authors' experiences.

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