The prevalence and risk factors of stroke among Sudanese individuals with diabetes: Cross-sectional survey
Ahmed Omer Almobarak1, Safaa Badi2, Wadie M Elmadhoun3, Hanan Tahir4, Mohamed H Ahmed5
1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology; Delta College of Science and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Nile Valley University, Atbara, Sudan
4 Public and Tropical Health Program, Graduate College, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
5 Department of Medicine and HIV Metabolic Clinic, Milton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK
Dr. Mohamed H Ahmed
Department of Medicine and HIV Metabolic Clinic, Milton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes complications in Sudan were increasing at an alarming rate. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of stroke among Sudanese individuals with diabetes.
METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study recruited 283 individuals with diabetes from three diabetes centers in Sudan. Data were collected using a standardized pretested questionnaire, and data were analyzed using Chi-square and logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: The average age of participants was 51 (±12 standard deviation) and 35% were aged between 51 and 60 years. Females were 66.8%, and most of the participants (73.9%) were from urban areas and 66.1% received formal education between primary school and university. Body mass index (BMI) classification showed that 34.3% were obese, 31.8% overweight, and 30.4% normal BMI. Diabetes for 1-5 years were observed in 71.7% and for more than 10 years (12%). The majority, i.e., 94.3% had type 2 diabetes mellitus while only 5.7% had type 1. Only one-third of the participants were able to achieve glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) target for diabetes control. The prevalence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) was 2.5%, hypertension (HTN) was 20%, ischemic heart disease 3.2%, and neuropathy was 45.6%. Chi-square test showed significant association between HbA1c, serum creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein level, and the presence of CVA. Logistic regression analysis showed HbA1c, and the duration of diabetes are significantly associated with the presence of CVA (P = 0.010, 0.014).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of stroke among Sudanese individuals with diabetes was around 2.5%. The main risk factors were HbA1c, HTN, and duration of diabetes.