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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-56

Online since Friday, March 24, 2023

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Mental stress, meditation, and yoga in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases Highly accessed article p. 1
Aminah I Fayyaz, Yuchuan Ding
It is well known that stress can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke although the exact way it does this is unknown. This information is particularly more relevant in a post COVID-19 era where healthcare workers are increasingly facing more stressful working conditions. Thus, it is important to look into alternative methods to deal with stress including meditation and yoga which have shown potential.
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Where are we heading in post-China angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic intracranial severe stenosis era? p. 3
Fang Xue, Ho Jun Yun, Liwei Peng, Chuanjie Wu
Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is a globally challengeable disease. In the past 20 years, people have made a huge effort to deal with the problem including using endovascular technology and aggressive medical therapy. However, the efficacy of these methods seemed to be limited. The recent China angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic intracranial severe stenosis (CASSISS) did not support the addition of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting to medical therapy for the treatment of patients with symptomatic severe ICAD. So where are we heading in the post-CASSISS era?
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Identifying cerebral microstructural changes in patients with COVID-19 using MRI: A systematic review p. 6
Fahad H Alhazmi, Walaa M Alsharif, Sultan Abdulwadoud Alshoabi, Moawia Gameraddin, Khalid M Aloufi, Osama M Abdulaal, Abdualziz A Qurashi
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic viral disease caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite the excessive number of neurological articles that have investigated the effect of COVID-19 on the brain from the neurological point of view, very few studies have investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the cerebral microstructure and function of the brain. The aim of this study was to summarize the results of the existing studies on cerebral microstructural changes in COVID-19 patients, specifically the use of quantitative volumetric analysis, blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Semantic Scholar, and Google Scholar from December 2020 to April 2022. A well-constructed search strategy was used to identify the articles for review. Seven research articles have met this study's inclusion and exclusion criteria, which have applied neuroimaging tools such as quantitative volumetric analysis, BOLD, and DTI to investigate cerebral microstructure changes in COVID-19 patients. A significant effect of COVID-19 was found in the brain such as hypoperfusion of cerebral blood flow, increased gray matter (GM) volume, and reduced cortical thickness. The insula and thalamic radiation were the most frequent GM region and white matter tract, respectively, that are involved in SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 was found to be associated with changes in cerebral microstructures. These abnormalities in brain areas might lead to be associated with behaviors, mental and neurological alterations that need to be considered carefully in future studies.
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Research progress of selective brain cooling methods in the prehospital care for stroke patients: A narrative review p. 16
Xi Chen, Hong An, Di Wu, Xunming Ji
Over the past four decades, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has long been suggested as a promising neuroprotective treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Much attention has focus on keeping the hypothermic benefits and removing side effects of systemic hypothermia. In the past few years, the advent of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy has taken us into a reperfusion era of AIS treatment. With recent research emphasizing ways to plus neuroprotective treatments to reperfusion therapy, the spotlight is now shifting toward the study of how selective brain hypothermia can offset the drawbacks of systemic hypothermia and be applied in prehospital condition. This mini-review summarizes current brain cooling methods that can be used for inducing selective hypothermia in prehospital care. It will guide the future development of selective cooling methods, extend the application of TH in prehospital care, and provide insights into the prospects of selective hypothermia in AIS.
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Risk factors for multiple recurrent ischemic strokes p. 21
Nevzat Uzuner, Gulnur Tekgol Uzuner
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and atrial fibrillation are the most common modifiable risk factors for recurrent ischemic stroke. In this study, we aimed to find the risk factors associated with more than two recurrent ischemic strokes after the first-ever stroke. METHODS: We collected the ischemic stroke patients in our stroke registry data bank, and the eligible patients were followed for recurrent ischemic stroke after 2008. Our study consisted of 927 patients who were followed up for 9 years after the first-ever stroke. RESULTS: We found that 185 (20%) patients had a recurrent ischemic stroke, and another 32 (3.5%) patients had more than one recurrence after the first-ever ischemic stroke. The mean time for the first stroke recurrence was 1 year, and the mean time for the multiple stroke recurrences was 3 years. Significant risk factors for multiple recurrences were congestive heart disease (P < 0.015) and diabetes mellitus (P < 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that even with the appropriate treatments, patients with congestive heart disease and diabetes mellitus have a higher rate of multiple recurrences for ischemic stroke after the first-ever ischemic stroke, indicating that more attention should be paid to this issue.
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Direct transfer for thrombectomy in patients with large vessel occlusions on computed tomography angiography results in safe revascularization p. 25
Ryan G Eaton, Olivia Duru, Ciaran James Powers
INTRODUCTION: Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EVT) has become the standard of care treatment for both intravenous tissue plasminogen activator eligible and ineligible patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke due to a large vessel occlusion (LVO) within 24 h. Due to limited access to EVT, patients typically present to a non-EVT-capable center and are transferred to a larger, EVT-capable center. Quality improvement work has focused on improving this process to shorten the time to definitive recanalization of the affected vessel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 98 consecutive patients who were transferred from an outside institution to our Comprehensive Stroke Center from July 2019 to September 2021. Thirty-nine of these patients had a diagnosed LVO at the transferring center on computed tomography angiography and were transferred directly to the angiography suite (DAT) whereas 59 patients were transferred to our Emergency Department for further imaging (EDT). Three of the patients in the DAT group did not undergo thrombectomy as there was no LVO identified on catheter angiography and were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Demographic and medical comorbidities were similar between the two groups. The DAT group had more severe strokes on presentation compared to the EDT group as measured by the National Institute of Health Stroke Severity (17.5 vs. 15, P = 0.048). Last known well (LKW) to arrival time in the angiography suite was significantly shorter in the DAT group (280 min vs. 474 min, P = 0.002). Patients in the DAT group were revascularized faster than the EDT group relative to LKW (320 min vs. 534 min, P < 0.001) while door-to-groin puncture and door-to-revascularization rates were similar. Modified Rankin score, incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and need for decompressive hemicraniectomy were similar between the two groups. Successful revascularization as measured by thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score occurred at a higher rate in the DAT group but was not statistical significance (97% vs. 85%, P = 0.055). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: DAT resulted in safe EVT compared to EDT with significant improvement in LKW to angiography suite presentation and subsequent vessel recanalization. Patients who underwent DAT experienced similar functional outcomes compared to EDT despite experiencing more severe strokes.
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Carotid cavernous fistula: A rare but treatable cause of ophthalmoplegia - A case report p. 30
Neeharika Krothapalli, Mohamad Fayad, Eric Sussman, Charles Bruno, Martin Ollenschleger, Tapan Mehta
Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are a rare but debilitating entity that may present with orbital or cerebral venous hypertension. CCFs may pose diagnostic and management pitfalls for clinicians as they can initially be misdiagnosed as primary orbital pathology or nonarteriovenous shunting-related cavernous sinus pathology. Furthermore, the resolution of pulsatile tinnitus could be an ominous sign in patients with untreated dural arteriovenous fistula. We describe a case of a 56-year-old male who presented with progressive right eye proptosis, congestion, decreased visual acuity, limited duction, exophthalmos, and pulsatile tinnitus. The patient had poor response to antibiotics and steroids. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed significant inflammation involving the right orbit and atypical enhancement of the basal frontal lobe adjacent to the orbit. Cerebral angiography revealed an indirect right CCF and right sigmoid sinus thrombosis with stenosis of the right internal jugular vein. No clear predisposing factor was identified. Given the rapidly progressive nature of the condition, the patient successfully underwent endovascular treatment with transvenous approach to preserve flow in the internal carotid artery while ensuring occlusion of the fistula. A triad of proptosis, eye congestion, and signs of turbulent flow such as tinnitus or orbital bruit should raise suspicion for CCF. An interesting feature in this patient is that CCF may have occurred secondary to sigmoid sinus thrombosis with accompanying small cortical vein drainage. Our case highlights the importance of early recognition and timely intervention to ensure the resolution of orbital hypertension-related symptoms in rare cases of CCFs.
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Inverted gull-wing hinge decompressive craniotomy for infantile acute subdural hematoma: A case report p. 35
Yu Okuma, Takao Yasuhara, Ittetsu Kin, Shigeru Daido, Isao Date
Infantile severe acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) usually require a decompressive craniotomy. However, these infantile patients often suffer surgical site infection and aseptic bone-flap resorption after external decompression. In this report, we showed a case of a simplified hinge decompressive craniotomy in an infant with severe ASDH. A 2-month-old girl suffered from status epilepticus, impaired consciousness, multiple rib fractures, bilateral fundus hemorrhage, and a right ASDH. We performed a simplified hinge decompressive craniotomy, making a vascularized bone flap with a hinge using the partial temporal bone and temporal muscle and not fixing the bone flap like an inverted gull wing. Cranioplasty was performed 4 weeks after the decompression craniotomy with replaced resorbable substitute dura. Six months after the transfer, her development was generally in line with her age. The decompressive craniotomy with an inverted gull-wing hinge has shown a good outcome.
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Dural arteriovenous fistula of the torcular herophili presenting with hydrocephalus and venous congestion in an 8-month-old child: A case report p. 39
Dimitri T K. Ndandja, Gerald Musa, Rossi E C. Barrientos, Matvey I Livshitz, Suzy N J. Manko, Gennady E Chmutin, Hovrin V Dmitri, Bupe M Mwela, Slabov V Mihail
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are direct communication between the dural arterial and venous systems. They are more common in adults. In children, they are relatively rare. Hydrocephalus is a common problem in pediatrics with a variety of causes. However, very few cases of hydrocephalus as a complication of DAVF have been reported in the literature. This case describes an 8-month-old male child with a large DAVF at the torcular herophili who presented with regression of milestones and hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on admission showed triventricular hydrocephalus and a massively dilated torcular with a compressed fourth ventricle. Angiography confirmed the presence of a DAVF at the torcula with arterial feeders from the posterior circulation. Endovascular embolization was performed with >80% embolization of the fistula with no complications. Control MRI immediately postoperative was acceptable. No cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion was performed. At a 3-month follow-up, the child had attained all developmental milestones for age. MRI showed normal CSF dynamics and a further reduction in the size of the torcula. Despite being rare, DAVFs should be considered as a possible cause of pediatric hydrocephalus, and treating them can lead to a resolution of the mechanisms inducing hydrocephalus. CSF shunting should be reserved for those cases with persistent hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure despite endovascular treatment.
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Importance of multiplanar reformation angiographic images for the detection of carotid web: A case series p. 44
Laura Zelada-Ríos, Danny Barrientos-Imán, Lourdes Simbrón-Ribbeck, Carlos Abanto Argomedo, Jorge Ramírez-Quiñones, Pilar Calle La Rosa, Ana Valencia Chávez, Ricardo Otiniano-Sifuentes
Carotid web (CW) is considered a variant of intimal fibromuscular dysplasia. CW represents between 9.4% and 37% of ischemic strokes that were initially misclassified as “cryptogenic.” However, in Latin America, there is a lack of detection. We present 5 cases of ischemic stroke due to CW and discuss the usefulness of multiplanar reformatting (MPR) imaging in computed tomography angiography. The identification of CW with the use of tridimensional (3D) reconstructions and maximum intensity projection was 20%, the rest was misdiagnosed as atherosclerotic plaque. With the MPR, the identification of typical CW findings was improved, such as a thin septum, a shelf-like image, and a mountain shadow-like image. However, one must be alert to changes in the 3D disposition of the carotid bifurcation, as they may mask the typical CW findings. A good practice is to align the internal carotid artery exactly posterior to the external carotid artery in the sagittal plane.
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Cognitive deterioration in childhood: Never forget electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep p. 48
Annio Posar, Paola Visconti
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Anosmia and dysgeusia as markers of severity and prognosis in COVID-19 p. 50
Luis Del Carpio-Orantes, Sergio Garcia-Mendez, Jesus Salvador Sanchez Diaz, Ishar Solis-Sanchez, Andres Aguilar-Silva
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Beware of bihemispheric stroke after Omicron variant infection in the elderly p. 52
Takahiko Nagamine
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Incidence of stroke in a population affected by COVID-19 in Veracruz, México p. 55
Luis Del Carpio-Orantes, Ishar Solís-Sánchez, Nancy Patricia Moreno-Aldama, Andrés Aguilar-Silva, Sergio García-Méndez, Jesús Salvador Sánchez-Díaz
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