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   2016| January-March  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 11, 2016

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Biomarkers for acute diagnosis and management of stroke in neurointensive care units
Olena Y Glushakova, Alexander V Glushakov, Emmy R Miller, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes
January-March 2016, 2(1):28-47
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.178546  PMID:30276272
The effectiveness of current management of critically ill stroke patients depends on rapid assessment of the type of stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, and on a patient's general clinical status. Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) is the only effective treatment for ischemic stroke approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), whereas no treatment has been shown to be effective for hemorrhagic stroke. Furthermore, a narrow therapeutic window and fear of precipitating intracranial hemorrhage by administering r-tPA cause many clinicians to avoid using this treatment. Thus, rapid and objective assessments of stroke type at admission would increase the number of patients with ischemic stroke receiving r-tPA treatment and thereby, improve outcome for many additional stroke patients. Considerable literature suggests that brain-specific protein biomarkers of glial [i.e. S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] and neuronal cells [e.g., ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), αII-spectrin breakdown products SBDP120, SBDP145, and SBDP150, myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament light chain (NF-L), tau protein, visinin-like protein-1 (VLP 1), NR2 peptide] injury that could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood might provide valuable and timely diagnostic information for stroke necessary to make prompt management and decisions, especially when the time of stroke onset cannot be determined. This information could include injury severity, prognosis of short-term and long-term outcomes, and discrimination of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This chapter reviews the current status of the development of biomarker-based diagnosis of stroke and its potential application to improve stroke care.
  19,587 2,991 58
Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral blood flow in animal stroke models
Qiang Shen, Timothy Q Duong
January-March 2016, 2(1):20-27
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.178544  PMID:26998527
Perfusion could provide useful information on the metabolic status and functional status of tissues and organs. This review summarizes the most commonly used perfusion measurement methods: Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) and their applications in experimental stroke. Some new developments of cerebral blood flow (CBF) techniques in animal models are also discussed.
  6,490 756 12
Methylene blue treatment in experimental ischemic stroke: A mini-review
Zhao Jiang, Timothy Q Duong
January-March 2016, 2(1):48-53
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.178548  PMID:27042692
Stroke is among the leading causes of death and long-term disability. Methylene blue (MB), a drug grandfathered by the Food and Drug Administration with a long history of safe usage in humans for treating methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning, has recently been shown to be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. The goal of this paper is to review studies on MB in experimental stroke models.
  6,609 431 16
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2) in subarachnoid hemorrhage: Regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic implications
Sana Iqbal, Erik G Hayman, Caron Hong, Jesse A Stokum, David B Kurland, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
January-March 2016, 2(1):8-19
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.178541  PMID:27774520
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) typically carries a poor prognosis. Growing evidence indicates that overabundant production of nitric oxide (NO) may be responsible for a large part of the secondary injury that follows SAH. Although SAH modulates the activity of all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the inducible isoform, NOS-2, accounts for a majority of NO-mediated secondary injuries after SAH. Here, we review the indispensable physiological roles of NO that must be preserved, even while attempting to downmodulate the pathophysiologic effects of NO that are induced by SAH. We examine the effects of SAH on the function of the various NOS isoforms, with a particular focus on the pathological effects of NOS-2 and on the mechanisms responsible for its transcriptional upregulation. Finally, we review interventions to block NOS-2 upregulation or to counteract its effects, with an emphasis on the potential therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes in patients afflicted with SAH. There is still much to be learned regarding the apparently maladaptive response of NOS-2 and its harmful product NO in SAH. However, the available evidence points to crucial effects that, on balance, are adverse, making the NOS-2/NO/peroxynitrite axis an attractive therapeutic target in SAH.
  5,377 525 23
Amnion-derived stem cell transplantation: A novel treatment for neurological disorders
Horacio G Carvajal, Paola Suárez-Meade, Cesario V Borlongan
January-March 2016, 2(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.178537  PMID:30276271
In this review, we evaluated the literature reporting the use of amniotic stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine for the treatment of neurological disorders. There is an increasing amount of evidence that indicates the exacerbation of the primary injury by inflammation in neurological disorders characterized by rampant inflammation, thereby increasing damage to the central nervous system (CNS). To address this, we focus on the amnion cells' anti-inflammatory properties, which make their transplantation a promising treatment for these disorders. In addition, we offered insights into new applications of the ASC in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.
  5,180 678 5
Effects of erythropoietin combined with tissue plasminogen activator on the rats following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion
Rongliang Wang, Xiaoning Wu, Haiping Zhao, Lianqiu Min, Zhen Tao, Xunming Ji, Yumin Luo
January-March 2016, 2(1):54-60
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.178552  PMID:30276273
OBJECTIVES: Exogenously administered recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective effects in animal models. However, there are still have some controversies that combination of EPO and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in acute ischemic stroke. In the present study, we investigated the effects of local intra-arterial infusion of low-dose EPO in combination with tPA on focal cerebral ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, including sham, vehicle, EPO, tPA, and EPO+tPA groups. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and administrated with EPO (800 U/kg, middle cerebral artery injection), tPA (10 mg/kg, tail vein injection), EPO+tPA, or saline (vehicle) onset of reperfusion. Neurobehavioral deficits, infarct volume, brain edema, the expression of tight junction proteins (Claudin-5, Occludin), and AQP4 were assessed following 2 h ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. The number of apoptotic cells in the periinfarct region was detected by the terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. RESULTS: The neurobehavioral deficits, brain infarct volume, edema volume, TUNEL-positive cells and downregulation of Claudin-5 and Occludin were alleviated by EPO or EPO plus tPA, following the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. The EPO and EPO plus tPA both reduced the upregulation of AQP4 in the ischemic brain tissue. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate local intra-arterial infusion of low-dose EPO in combination with tPA protected against focal cerebral ischemia in rats manifested by a decrease in brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after 2 h ischemia and 24 h reperfusion.
  4,208 434 4