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   2018| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 18, 2018

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Cerebrospinal fluid circulation: What do we know and how do we know it?
Ahmad H Khasawneh, Richard J Garling, Carolyn A Harris
January-March 2018, 4(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/bc.BC_3_18  PMID:30276331
The central nervous system's (CNS) complicated design is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, the complexity is what gives rise to higher order thinking; but on the other hand, damage to the CNS evokes its unforgiving nature. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation system is an intricate system embedded in and around the CNS that has been the topic of debate since it was first described in the 18th century. It is underscored by the choroid plexus's distinct vascular network which has conventionally been seen as the most prominent structure in CSF production through a variety of active transporters and channels. Despite the ubiquity of this circulation system in vertebrates, some aspects remain understudied. Recent advances in scientific methodology and experimentation have proven to be effective tools for elucidating the mechanisms of the CSF circulation system and the pathological conditions associated with its malfunction. In this review, we capitulate the classical understanding of CSF physiology as well as a new, emerging theory on CSF production.
  24,006 3,987 60
Hypothermia and brain inflammation after cardiac arrest
Pouya Tahsili-Fahadan, Salia Farrokh, Romergryko G Geocadin
January-March 2018, 4(1):1-13
DOI:10.4103/bc.BC_4_18  PMID:30276330
The cessation (ischemia) and restoration (reperfusion) of cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest (CA) induce inflammatory processes that can result in additional brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been proven as a brain protective strategy after CA. In this article, the underlying pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion brain injury with emphasis on the role of inflammatory mechanisms is reviewed. Potential targets for immunomodulatory treatments and relevant effects of TH are also discussed. Further studies are needed to delineate the complex pathophysiology and interactions among different components of immune response after CA and identify appropriate targets for clinical investigations.
  6,252 648 29
Neuroprotective effects of tenuigenin on neurobehavior, oxidative stress, and tau hyperphosphorylation induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats
Xiao-Bo Huang, Yu-Jing Chen, Wen-Qiang Chen, Ning-Qun Wang, Xi-Ling Wu, Yan Liu
January-March 2018, 4(1):24-32
DOI:10.4103/bc.BC_2_17  PMID:30276333
BACKGROUND: Tenuigenin (TEN), a major active component of the Chinese herb Polygala tenuifolia root, has been used to improve memory and cognitive function in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. PURPOSE: The present study was designed to explore the possible neuroprotective effect of TEN on the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). METHODS: STZ was injected twice intracerebroventrically (3 mg/kg, ICV) on alternate days (day 1 and day 3) in Rats. Daily treatment with TEN (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) starting from the first dose of STZ for 28 days. Memory-related behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze test. Hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins in hippocampus were measured by western blot assay. Superoxide dismutase activities, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts contents were also measured in the hippocampus.RESULTS: Treatment with TEN significantly improved STZ-induced cognitive damage, markedly reduced changes in malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts, and significantly inhibited STZ-induced reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the hippocampus. In addition, TEN decreased hyperphosphorylation of tau resulting from intracerebroventricular STZ (ICV-STZ) injection, and Nissl staining results showed that TEN has protective effects on hippocampal neurons. CONCLUSION: These results provide experimental evidence demonstrating preventive effect of TEN on cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress, and hyperphosphorylation of tau in ICV-STZ rats. This study indicates that TEN may have beneficial effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.
  4,231 450 16
Mid A1 blister aneurysm presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage: Case report and review
Gary B Rajah, Dylan J Goodrich, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Sandra Narayanan
January-March 2018, 4(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/bc.BC_2_18  PMID:30276332
Blister aneurysms are uncommon and difficult-to-treat lesions. They are a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality when encountered. Here, we report a blister aneurysm of the mid A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery presenting with diffuse basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aneurysm was treated by surgical clipping of the parent vessel. Postoperatively, there was no filling of the parent vessel or aneurysm. A treatment algorithm including direct surgical repair and flow diversion for ruptured blister aneurysms is described. A high level of suspicion should be maintained in the setting of angiographic-negative SAH with an asymmetrically diffuse pattern.
  4,282 348 1
The association between the ring finger protein 213 gene R4810K variant and intracranial major artery stenosis/occlusion in the Han Chinese population and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging findings
Sufang Xue, Weiyang Cheng, Wanqian Wang, Xiaowei Song, Jian Wu, Haiqing Song
January-March 2018, 4(1):33-39
DOI:10.4103/bc.BC_9_17  PMID:30276334
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ring finger protein 213 (RNF213) gene R4810K variant, a susceptibility locus for moyamoya disease (MMD), has recently been identified to be associated with intracranial major artery stenosis/occlusion (ICASO) without satisfying the diagnostic criteria of MMD in the Japanese population. However, further studies are needed to determine whether this variant is associated with ICASO in other populations and whether R4810K variant-related ICASO could be categorized as MMD. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether the R4810K variant was associated with ICASO among the Han Chinese population and potential histopathology of R4810K variant-related ICASO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case–control study to evaluate association and performed high-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate arterial wall feature of ICASO. The R4810K variant was genotyped in 114 ICASO patients and 268 controls. Then, patients with R4810K variant-related ICASO were subjected to HR MRI examination and presumptively diagnosed based on the characteristics thus observed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The relationship between R4810K variant and ICASO was evaluated by Fisher's exact test with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The R4810K variant was associated with ICASO and increased the risk for ICASO (P < 0.01; OR: 20.2; 95% CI: 2.5–163.11). Presumptive MMD was diagnosed in all female patients with R4810K variant. However, presumptive intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis was diagnosed in one of three males harboring this variant. CONCLUSIONS: The R4810K variant is a genetic risk factor for ICASO among the Han Chinese population and that R4810K variant-related ICASO should be identified as MMD in female but not uncertain in male patients.
  3,608 397 4
Reperfusion injury in the age of revascularization
David Dornbos III, Yuchuan Ding
January-March 2018, 4(1):40-42
DOI:10.4103/bc.BC_5_18  PMID:30276335
  2,781 330 3